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HOWTO_Advanced_Install

This article is part of the HOWTO series.
Installation Kernel & Hardware Networks Portage Software System X Server Gaming Non-x86 Emulators Misc

THIS GUIDE IS OUT OF DATE AND WILL PROBABLY MAKE YOUR COMPUTER EXPLODE, PLEASE DON'T FOLLOW IT

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Contents

TODO

Introduction

This guide is directed towards more advanced users, who are not installing for their first time. If you are a new user or are not comfortable with advanced topics, you should use the Gentoo Installation Handbook. This guide provides bugfixes and tweaks for installing from Stage1, using NPTL, as well as several other minor, but advanced installation enhancements. This guide does overlap with the Gentoo Installation Handbook in many places, simply because many of the same actions are required to create a functional system.

Preparation

Minimal install CD

Grab the latest Gentoo Minimal install CD: install-x86-minimal-2006.0.iso The mirror here is provided for convienence. A similar file can be downloaded from any of the mirrors listed on the Gentoo Linux Mirrors page.

You may be able to complete the installation from an alternative install method, but nothing is guaranteed. Your Mileage May Vary.

Using Screen

This step is optional

Screen is a moderately complex program that emulates a terminal. The feature it is best known for is the ability to disconnect and reconnect to screen sessions, which very gracefully survive logoffs. Screen has many more useful features, which are beyond the scope of this guide. Please refer to Screen for more information.

Using irssi

This step is optional

irssi is a console based IRC program. See irssi for further information.

Optimizing Harddisk and CDRom Transfer Modes

This step is optional

There are often optimizations that can be made to the hard disk and cdrom that are not enabled by default. To enable all optimizations for hda:


Code: Optimizing Transfer Modes for hda
# hdparm -d1c1u1m16 /dev/hda

hda is given as an example in this case. Use the same command for every harddisk you will use in the installation. To understand the specifics of this, please check the hdparm man page.

If you will be using the CDRom extensively during the install process, you can optimize its transfer rates as well.

Code: Optimizing Transfer Modes for cdrom0
# hdparm -d1c1u1 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0

Networking

By default, the Gentoo LiveCD will attempt to detect an ethernet card and gain connection information via dhcp. This is usually successful. To test your connection:

Code: Testing Network Connection
# ifconfig
# ping -c4 yahoo.com

If the settings returned from ifconfig are satisfactory and ping is successfully returning replies, you can move onto the next step.

If you do not have a standard ethernet/dhcp setup, you will need to configure your connection manually. The gentoo installation guide has an extensive section on configuring a network. Follow this section of the guide and then return here once the network connection is successful. Gentoo Linux Installation Handbook:Configuring Your Network

Networking could be failing for any number of reasons such as the cable being unplugged or third party drivers not being included on the LiveCD. The wide range of networking problems cannot be addressed in this document nor in the Gentoo Handbook. If you require assistance, try searching this wiki visiting The Gentoo Linux Forums, or asking on the Gentoo IRC Channel.

Partitioning

If you are using this guide you should be familiar with "fdisk" or at least have heard of it. Partitioning your harddrive with "fdisk" is recommended but not strictly required. If you'd like to you could use another partitioner such as "cfdisk".

First, check your system for available disks.

Code: Using fdisk to check for available disks
# fdisk -l

Example output:

Code: fdisk -l example output
Disk /dev/sda: 54.8 GB, 54896492544 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6674 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes


If you do not understand the interface of "fdisk" you may consider using another, more friendly partitioner such as "cfdisk". Also this guide may be too advanced for your userlevel.

Disk partitioning is not a subject that can be dictated, since every configuration is different and every system is used differently. The following is just a recommended partitioning scheme which need not be strictly adhered to.

Now, "fdisk" your harddrive(s). Hda is used as an example; use the corresponding device to your computer's setup.

Code: fdisk hda
# fdisk /dev/hda

Creating Filesystems

Like partitioning, filesystem choices are a commonly disputed matter. This guide recommends setting up your partitions as follows:

A large amount of research and benchmarking can be done on the subject of filesystems. Advanced users may consider looking into various filesystem options on GNU/Linux to find the optimal system for their purposes.

These are the commands to format the partitions as per the recommendation given using example harddrive devices:

Code: Formatting partitions
# mke2fs /dev/hda1
# mkswap /dev/hda2
# mkreiserfs /dev/hda3

And, activate the swap right away:

Code: Activating swap
# swapon /dev/hda2

Mounting Filesystems

Code: Mounting Filesystems
# mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo
# mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot
# mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot

If additional partitions are used, they should be mounted now as well.

Retrieving Stage 1

Get stage one and extract it. Again, the mirror provided is just an example.

Code: Retrieving and Unpacking Stage 1
# cd /mnt/gentoo/
# wget http://mirror.datapipe.net/gentoo/releases/x86/2005.1-r1/stages/x86/stage1-x86-2005.1-r1.tar.bz2
# tar xjpvf stage1*.bz2

Selecting a Fast Mirror

This step is optional
Code: Setting a Fast Mirror
# mirrorselect -a -s4 -o | grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' >> /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf

Configuring make.conf

Setting up /etc/make.conf is another very complex topic, which is beyond the scope of this guide. Please refer to the make.conf manpage for more information.

Modify make.conf to your needs:

Code: Modifying Make.conf
# nano -w /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf

Make sure you set "nptl" in your USE flags, because it's one of the main reasons for performing the installation this way. In order to speed up the compilation process you can add "ccache" to your FEATURES list.

Mounting /proc

This is a step you have to do or things will break in the future:

Code: Mounting /proc
# mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc

Mounting /dev

This step is optional

If you have an off-board IDE card, you may run into trouble with Grub later - mounting /dev might help prevent this.

Code: Mounting /dev
# mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev

Chrooting

The final preparation step: entering the new Gentoo environment!

Code: Chrooting into the new Gentoo
# cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf
# chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash
# env-update && source /etc/profile

Bootstrapping and System

Setting the Date and Time

Now is a good idea to make sure you have the correct time. Some packages, such as perl, are time sensitive.

Code: Setting the date and time example
date --help
Usage: date [OPTION]... [+FORMAT]
  or:  date [-u|--utc|--universal] [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]]
Display the current time in the given FORMAT, or set the system date.

n0id var # date 090316002004
Fri Sep  3 16:00:00 CDT 2004

Downloading the Portage Tree

Code: Downloading the Portage Tree
# emerge --sync

This'll take a while.

Bootstrap, System, and rc-update

If you want to use the Compiler Cache (see FEATURES in your make.conf) - you should emerge it now by typing:

Code: emerge ccache

emerge --oneshot --nodeps ccache

The Compiler Cache normally uses ~/.ccache as a workdir, but portage works in /var/tmp/ccache. In order to get the correct stats, you may want to set a symlink after removing the old directory:

Code: Symlinking ccache directories

rm -r /root/.ccache

mkdir /var/tmp/ccache

ln -s /var/tmp/ccache /root/.ccache

For your convienence, a big oneliner to do it all: (note: 2.6 is now stable and linux26-headers has become linux-headers)

Code: Bootstrap, System, rc-update oneliner
env-update && source /etc/profile && emerge --oneshot --nodeps gcc-config && emerge linux-headers && cd /usr/portage && scripts/bootstrap.sh && emerge libperl && emerge perl && emerge system && emerge syslog-ng xinetd grub hotplug coldplug vixie-cron reiserfsprogs reiser4progs sysfsutils udev dhcpcd && emerge --nodeps acpid ntp && rc-update add syslog-ng default && rc-update add net.eth0 default && rc-update add vixie-cron default && rc-update add xinetd default && rc-update add sshd default && rc-update add hotplug default && rc-update add coldplug default && rc-update add acpid default && rc-update add ntpd default 

In some cases (depending on your use-flags?!) emerge of perl* is blocked by other packages. However, you should use ¬łemerge -e system¬ł! Gentoo nowadays use udev natively, so emerge -e system merges udev. Furthermore udev ist blocking the colplug package. Dont merge it ;)

Code: Bootstrap, System, rc-update oneliner II
env-update && source /etc/profile && emerge --oneshot --nodeps gcc-config && emerge linux-headers && cd /usr/portage && scripts/bootstrap.sh && USE="-*" emerge libperl perl && emerge -e system && emerge syslog-ng xinetd grub hotplug vixie-cron reiserfsprogs reiser4progs sysfsutils udev dhcpcd && emerge --nodeps acpid ntp && rc-update add syslog-ng default && rc-update add net.eth0 default && rc-update add vixie-cron default && rc-update add xinetd default && rc-update add sshd default && rc-update add hotplug default && rc-update add coldplug default && rc-update add acpid default && rc-update add ntpd default 


Before you go pasting that into anything, check it over first - you may have different preferences (i.e. different filesystem requirements or you want a different logger/cron daemon). libperl is in there twice on purpose, it reportedly fails a couple of times.


When i run scripts/bootstrap.sh it failed to compile dev-perl/Locale-gettext. I solved that problem when i run "emerge --nodeps gdbm libperl perl"

http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-p-3382945.html



make sure that emerge system installed the package net-tools (try running ifconfig).

If you thought emerge sync took a long time, then this is going to feel like eternity to you.

Using ntp to eliminate clock skew

Code: Using NTP to get the time
ntpdate -b -u pool.ntp.org

Configuring the timezone

Code: Setting the timezone
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo
# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/{your timezone} /etc/localtime

Configuring and Building the Kernel

First, grab the kernel sources.
This guide highly recommends the plain "vanilla" kernel sources.
(symlink use flag will setup the /usr/src/linux symbolic link)

Code: Emerging the kernel sources
# USE="symlink" emerge vanilla-sources

Change directory to the kernel source location:

Code: changing to /usr/src/linux
# cd /usr/src/linux

There are several ways to configure your kernel. The most popular is by issuing the make menuconfig command, which will provide you with a curses based menu system. Another is to copy the config file from an older kernel and then run make oldconfig, which will keep the old settings and prompt you about anything new. Finally, you can download a premade kernel config and then modify it you your own use, using make menuconfig.

Code: make menuconfig
# make menuconfig
Code: make oldconfig
# cp /tmp/old-kernel-config ./.config
# make oldconfig
Code: Modifying premade config
# wget http://www.ali3nx.info/.config (website is dead)
# make menuconfig

Specifically, you should change the following things from the premade config:

  1. Processor type and features - mainly be concerned with your cpu type here
  2. ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support for storage controllers
  3. Networking support - NIC Device drivers are your main concern Use Modules =]
  4. Character devices - agpgart and agp chipset type, dri driver ( if required)
    • Note that if your using an nvidia videocard it's best to leave the character devices as-is
  5. Sound support ~>> Advanced Linux Sound Architecture ~~> Pci devices
    • Set the correct driver module for your soundcard here. use a module as the alsa-utils package demands that modules be present for your system to use the startup script correctly
  6. USB support - Three primary items to be concerned with here...
    • If you have usb2 add the EHCI module as <m> the output recieved from lspci is important here as you cannot have both ohci AND uhci both included. you must choose one or the other and add it as a module
    • EHCI HCD (USB 2.0) support
    • OHCI HCD support
    • UHCI HCD (most Intel and VIA) support

Kernel configuration can be a tricky process. It helps a lot if you know your hardware beforehand. The commands lspci and lsmod can aid you in the kernel configuration stage. lspci will print out the info about all devices connected to your computer via PCI. As always, ask for help if you need it. For old-timers: don't set devfs in the kernel - we're using udev now.

Finally, compile the kernel and copy the image to /boot:

Code: Compiling the Kernel
# make && make modules_install
# cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot

I would like to add that I recommend using a naming scheme for the files associated with the kernel. For example if you are using kernel 2.6.11.5 then do the following. You will of course need to have your grub.conf match the name you specify for your kernel file

Code: Kernel naming Schema
# cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/2.6.11.5-kernel
# cp .config /boot/2.6.11.5-config
# cp System.map /boot/2.6.11.5-system

Setting /etc/conf.d/rc

Make sure you have the following settings in /etc/conf.d/rc:

RC_NET_STRICT_CHECKING="no"
RC_DEVICES="udev"
RC_DEVICE_TARBALL="no"

RC_NET_STRICT_CHECKING Usage:

Values Description
none The net service is always considered up
no This basically means that at least one net.* service besides net.lo must be up. This can be used by notebook users that have a WIFI and a static NIC, and only wants one up at any given time to have the net service seen as up.
lo This is the same as the no option, but net.lo is also counted. This should be useful to people that do not care about any specific interface being up at boot.
yes For this ALL network interfaces MUST be up for the net service to be considered up.

Code: Modifying /etc/conf.d/rc
# nano -w /etc/conf.d/rc

Setting up networking names

If this box is standalone or on your own LAN, these values don't matter too much, as long as they're unique - you can make up the domainname the same way you would make up your hostname. If this machine is going to be serving anything to the internet, then you should already know what these are. Finally, if you don't know what nis is, then you don't need it and shouldn't modify the respective line on /etc/conf.d/domainname for it.

Code: Networking Names
# nano /etc/conf.d/hostname
# nano /etc/conf.d/domainname
# rc-update add domainname default

Modifying /etc/hosts

Before the days of DNS, this is how every IP was associated with a name over the internet. You can set up friendly names to other boxes on your lan or the internet in this file, but if you don't want to, you can leave the default.

Code: Modifying /etc/hosts
# nano -w /etc/hosts

Setting up modules to autoload

If you decided to compile any drivers that you will be using on a daily basis as modules, you should add the module's name to the autoload file, so it will be automatically loaded upon boot.

Code: Adding a module to the autoload file
# echo foo >>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6
**substitute "foo" with your correct module name**
**repeat until all important modules are added to file**

Setting up networking

net.eth0 was added to the default runlevel in the big runlevel command back at the boostrap stage. If you have more than one ethernet device, do the following:

Code: Adding initscripts for more ethernet devices
# cd /etc/init.d
# ln -s net.lo net.eth1
# rc-update add net.eth1 default

You will also need to configure the settings for each ethernet device so the initscripts will know what to do. If you are using DHCP, it seems you're fine:

Code: Contents of net configuration file
# cat /etc/conf.d/net
This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
scripts in /etc/init.d.  To create a more complete configuration,
please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).

Huh? This wasn't true in my case and therefore just used the old setup. This obviously needs attention from someone else.

Configuring bootloader

This guide will provide a simple bootloader setup. The Gentoo Installation Guide has a more verbose section on Configuring a Bootloader. For a prettier setup, also see Fbsplash.

You can modify grub.conf.example to your needs or you can use the very basic sample one provided.

Code: Configuring Grub
# mv /boot/grub/grub.conf.example /boot/grub/grub.conf
# nano -w /boot/grub.conf
**or**
# nano -w /boot/grub.conf
*type/paste the following, making changes if neccesary*
title  Gentoo
root (hd0,0)
kernel /bzImage

Then, load grub into your harddrive's Master Boot Record.

Code: Installing Grub
# grub
grub> root (hd0,0)
grub> setup (hd0)
grub> quit

Setting up the fstab

The fstab tells the system what to mount at boot. Modify the default to correspond to your setup. If you installed exactly the same way as the defaults used in this guide, it should end up looking something like this (without comments removed):

Code: /etc/fstab
# nano -w /etc/fstab
/dev/hda1 /boot reiserfs noauto,notail 1 1
/dev/hda3 / reiserfs notail 0 1
/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 user,noauto,ro,exec 0 0

none /proc proc defaults 0 0

none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid 0 0

Setting up hdparm to be run at boot

This step is optional

We can get hdparm to optimize our harddrives every time we boot.

Add the following lines to /etc/conf.d/hdparm and delete or comment out the others. Change the drive number(s) if nessisary.

Code: hdparm config
# nano -w /etc/conf.d/hdparm
disc0_args="-d1c1u1m16"
cdrom0_args="-d1c1u1"

And add it to the boot runlevel:

Code: Adding hdparm to boot
# rc-update add hdparm boot

But, why wouldn't you just use the keepsettings option??

Finishing up

Setting root's password

Code: Setting root's password
# passwd

Adding a user

Code: Adding a user
# useradd myuser -m -k /etc/skel -g users -G audio,cron,wheel,portage,games -d /home/myuser -s /bin/bash 

Clean up

Exit the chroot and unmount everything.

Code: Cleaning up
#exit
#exit
#cd ~/
#umount /mnt/gentoo/proc
#umount /mnt/gentoo/boot
#umount /mnt/gentoo/dev
#umount /mnt/gentoo
#swapoff /dev/hda2

Reboot

Code: Reboot
# shutdown -r now

Enjoy

Enjoy!

Credits and Comments

Credits

The original form of this document was based heavily off of this forums topic: http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=189250
Thanks ali3n!

Comments

Leave a question or comment in the discussion section (click the discussion tab at the top of the screen).

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Last modified: Mon, 25 Aug 2008 05:31:00 +0000 Hits: 32,083